高考语法填空解题技巧初探

发表时间:2019/12/16   来源:《中小学教育》2020年第392期   作者:王曰福
[导读] 语法填空通常是一篇话题贴近生活的200词左右的短文,主要考查考生在篇章中综合运用语法知识的能力。

甘肃天祝县第一中学 甘肃 武威 733200
        一、题型解读
        语法填空通常是一篇话题贴近生活的200词左右的短文,主要考查考生在篇章中综合运用语法知识的能力。 包括理解语篇、句子结构、 运用语法、单词拼写等。填空形式分两种:一是纯空格3-4个,二是有提示词的空格6-7个。
        二、最新真题呈现(2019年全国II卷)
        A 90-year-old has been awarded “Woman Of The Year” for 61 being (be)Britain’s oldest full-time employee——still working 40 hours a week. Now Irene Astbury works from 9am to 5pm daily at the pet shop in  Macclesfield, 62 which she opened with her late husband Les. Her years of hard work have 63 finally (final)been acknowledged after a customer nominated(提名)her to be Cheshire’s Woman Of The Year.
        Picking up her“Lifetime Achievement”award, proud Irene 64 declared  (declare) she had no plans 65 to retire(retire) from her 36-year-old business. Irene said, “I don’t see any reason to give up work. I love coming here and seeing my family and all the friends I 66 have made(make) over the years. I work not because I have to, 67 but because I want to.”
        Granddaughter Gayle Parks, 31 — who works alongside her in the family business — said it remained unknown as to who nominated Irene for the award. She said, “We don’t have any idea who put grandma forward. When we got a call  68 saying (say) she was short-listed, we thought it was 69 a joke. But then we got an official letter and we were blown away. We are so proud of her. It’s 70 wonderful (wonder).
        三、答案分类解析
        1.纯空格试题(62、67、69)
        62题which 引导非限定性定语从句;67题not…but 句式;69题可数名词前加a表泛指。
        2.给出了动词的试题(61、64、65、66、68)
        61题介词加v-ing作宾语;64题谓语动词过去式,时态一致性;65题plan后不定式作后置定语;66题over the years 常连用现在完成时作谓语;68题现在分词作后置定语。
        3.词类转换题(63、70)
        63题副词作状语,修饰谓语动词;70题形容词作表语。



        四、解题技巧
        1.纯空格填空题
        (1)从句——引导词
        ①Teachers should take advantage of the many methods which/that can help them learn about their students.
        ②My face turned red on hearing what my mother said.
        (2)并列句——并列连词(and,but,or,so,while然而,when这时,etc)
        ①Each winner receives a gold medal,a diploma,and a sum of money.
        ②Teachers sometimes spend much time talking about students to their parents but little time actually talking to students themselves.
        (3)代词
        ①Firstly,we must understand the language when we hear it spoken.
        ②They can never do anything quite right,then they will regard themselves as unfit or unable persons.
        (4)冠词—a, an, the
        ①When you meet a new word, look it up in your dictionary.
        ②But my mood quickly changed when I saw the first question.
        (5)介词
        ①First, they fail to find suitable words to express themselves due to a limited vocabulary…The third reason is that not enough attention is paid to listening.
        ②With the help of the map he made, he got a valuable clue about the cause of the disease and was able to announce that the water was to blame.
        (6)固定结构
        ① It was only after I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn’t eat that food! (强调句式)
        ②Discovering about the nature of DNA in the 1940s made it possible for cloning experiments to progress.      (it作形式宾语) 
        2.给出了动词的试题
        首先,要确定是谓语动词还是非谓语动词。若是谓语动词,就要考虑时态和语态;若是非谓语动词就要确定用V-ing形式、V-ed形式,还是不定式(to do),V-ing形式表主动,进行或介词后;V-ed形式表被动,完成;To do形式表主动,将来,也作目的状语、结果状语及形容词后的状语。
        (1)He got interested in two theories explaining (explain) how cholera killed people.(现在分词作定语)
        (2)He was most famous for building (build) weapons of war.(介词+doing)
        (3)My eyes were drawn (draw) to a package that had a picture of a fridge on it.(被动语态)
        (4)The young student did all that he could to pass  (pass) the examinations.
        (5)Some people say that oldest children, who are smart and strong-willed, are very likely to succeed (success.) (be likely to do句式)
        6. He saw the stone, saying (say) to himself: “The night will be very dark.”(现在分词作伴随状语)
        7. Lessons learned  (learn) in sports can help us in our dealing with other people. (过去分词做后置定语)
        8. Can you tell me the way you thought of  to work  (work )out the problem.(the way to do 句式)
        3.词类转换题
        (1)作表语,定语或补语,通常用形容词形式。
        I helped him know he could be  helpful  (help) to others.
        (2)作主语、及物动词或介词后宾语,用名词(动名词)形式。
        ①watching (watch) TV too much is bad for your eyes.
        ②John Snow was able to announce with  certainty (certain).
        (3)在冠词、形容词、形容词性物主代词后,用名词形式。
        ①On December 10, the anniversary of the  death  (die) of Nobel…
        ②Recognizing what your bad eating habits are is of great  importance  (important) in correcting the behavior.
        (4)修饰动词、形容词、副词,或整个句子,作状语,用副词形式。
         Sadly (sad) the library had moved from its original place into another building.
        (5)有时候,词义转换题,词性不变,主要考查与词根意义相反的派生词,需根据句子意思及前后逻辑关系,在词根前加un-,im-等,在词根后加-less等。
        Laughing at others is impolite(polite).
       

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